The Harmful Digital Communications Act (HDCA) was passed in 2015 to help people dealing with serious or repeated harmful digital communications. It lays out 10 communication principles that guide how to communicate online.
What type of communication does the Act cover?
It covers any harmful digital communications (like text, emails or social media content) which can include racist, sexist and religiously intolerant comments – plus those about disabilities or sexual orientation.
What are the 10 communication principles?
A digital communication should not:
- disclose sensitive personal facts about an individual
- be threatening, intimidating, or menacing
- be grossly offensive to a reasonable person in the position of the affected individual
- be indecent or obscene
- be used to harass an individual
- make a false allegation
- contain a matter that is published in breach of confidence
- incite or encourage anyone to send a message to an individual for the purpose of causing harm to the individual
- incite or encourage an individual to commit suicide
- denigrate an individual by reason of colour, race, ethnic or national origins, religion, gender, sexual orientation or disability
What is Netsafe’s role under the HDCA?
Netsafe has the responsibility to help resolve reports related to alleged breaches of the 10 communication principles. We are not an enforcement agency, but we do have a high resolution rate. Some of the things we can do include:liaise with website hosts, ISPs and other content hosts (both here and overseas) and request them to takedown or moderate posts that are clearly offensive
use advise, negotiation, mediation and persuasion (as appropriate) to resolve complaints
inform people about their options if they wish to apply to the District Court
If we can’t resolve things, then the person who reported to us may apply to the District Court eg for a takedown order, against the author or host of the allegedly harmful content – but you need to have tried to resolve the matter with Netsafe first. We will provide you with a Netsafe Summary that you can take to the District Court to demonstrate that you have been through our process.
What is a Netsafe Summary?
A Netsafe Summary shows that you have tried to resolve your incident and that there are no further options we can consider. It offers a summary of your report including the resolution options we have offered, attempted or completed.
Although a Netsafe Summary informs the District Court, it does not impact on the decision the District Court makes. Once a Netsafe Summary has been provided to you, Netsafe will close your report and will no longer be involved.
What can the District Court do?
The District Court will deal with cases of harmful digital communications that Netsafe hasn’t been able to resolve. The court will determine whether the person harassing someone has seriously breached, will seriously breach or has repeatedly breached one or more of the 10 communication principles. The court has the power to order:material to be taken down
cease and desist orders
someone to publish a correction, an apology or give you a right of reply
the release the identity of the person behind an anonymous communication
Anyone who ignores the District Court’s orders can be prosecuted and penalised. The penalty is up to two years in prison or a fine up to $5,000 for an individual and up to $20, 000 for a company.
What are the criminal penalties under the HDCA?
The criminal penalties include:A fine of up to $50,000 for an individual or up to $200,000 for a body corporate, or up to two years jail for posting or sending a digital communication with intent to cause harm
Up to three years’ jail for the new crime of incitement to suicide where no attempt at suicide is made.
ADVICE FOR PARENTS ABOUT THE HDCA
The most useful thing for parents to understand about the Harmful Digital Communications Act is the way the 10 communication principles define what is good or bad behaviour online.
How does the HDCA apply to young people?
Anyone in New Zealand including young people or parents on behalf of their child can get help from Netsafe. The options available under the Act will reflect the age of the people involved in an online incident.
What do the criminal offences under the HDCA mean for young people?
A criminal offence under the HDCA is subject to the same youth justice processes that apply to other offences. This means the offences will not be applied to children under the age of 14, but can be applied to young people aged 14-16 under the youth justice system.
Te Whanau Marama – ‘The family of light’
Dr Rangi Matamua has started a journey and arguably, an invaluable one to revitalise traditional Maori knowledge, philosophy through teachings he retained from his elders.
The tikanga Maori or Maori philosophy and law and how Maori interpreted the stars in conjunction with Te Ra (The Sun) and Te Marama (The Moon) to adjust to the change in seasons, foretell weather and when to plant crops and even social relationships for example were all written in a book – ‘pukapuka’ developed by certain Tohunga or High Priests despite the advent of christian teachings when European immigrants started migrating to Aotearoa in the early to mid nineteenth century.
The research, teachings and philosophy revitalised by Dr Matamua indicate a very ancient knowledge retained for successive generations needless to say te Reo has been adjusted in meaning and comprehension into an English thought process when in tradition the language was particularly suited to interpretations of the natural world.
Dr Matamua has transformed the knowledge passed down to him into a book as well titled;
‘Matariki the Star of the Year’ or in te Reo Maori ‘Matariki te Whetu tapu o te Tau’.
Image Credit: Living By The Stars
The report and research prepared for but yet to be filed onto the Waitangi Tribunal casebook archive by members of the society on behalf claimants also covers Maori traditional knowledge, philosophy expanding on research by expat New Zealander Dr Barry Fell and a connection – trading routes – between Pacific nations – peoples including Aotearoa and Maori with South East Asia up through the Indian Ocean and into the Middle East or vice versa millennia before European Explorer Columbus discovered the Americas around 1492.
Dr Fells research pre-dates modern historical theories as evidence of early seafaring capability by two thousand years and of course many aspects of South American flora, fauna and wildlife developed into common use today e.g. the Potato, the humble chicken or Kumara and Gourd plant known and used by Maori for centuries as some of many examples.
Decorative examples of Gourd used by Maori for centuries. Origins, South America
Image credit: Newsroom
The interesting thing about Gourd is that it has been growing wildly in Abyssinia now called Ethiopia and in parts of India which undoubtedly indicates earlier interaction between seafaring peoples of Southern America, Pacific and the African continent.
The question raised here – is there any correlation between traditional Maori knowledge and philosophy, Matariki te Whetu tapu o te Tau and ancient Middle Eastern philosophy? and, we just need to look at the famous pyramids on the Giza plateau – the alignment with the Orion constellation to realise that there is indeed an ancient philosophy lost or mis-interpreted by some early historical philosophers or as Lyndon Rouche states ‘a fraud’ under the ill-conceived notion of diffusionism or that the people of the World developed independently when what really happened was driven by a Dravidian maritime culture (Maori included) and trade exposing the knowledge of the World and stored at places such as the Alexandria Library in Egypt. That we see a corruption of the ancient knowledge when Romans invaded old Egypt about 40BC and from that developed the christian faith with a re-write of what they could understand as Sumerian (who were also a Dravidian maritime culture) -Egyptian like Maori is a ‘pictorial’ record. In the modern world we are now able to use the internet to share ideas.
The Famous Giza Pyramids and alignment with ‘Orion’s Belt’
Image Credit: Osr.org
Dr Matamuas’ work is most interesting in this regard suggesting the very ancient philosophy retained by Maori Tohunga despite settler indifference or to be frank early settlers could not understandably comprehend.
Christian philosophy – claimed to be monotheism in nature as opposed to polytheism which according to Wikipedia sources;
Polytheism is the worship of or belief in multiple deities, which are usually assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, along with their own religions and rituals. In most religions which accept polytheism, the different gods and goddesses are representations of forces of nature or ancestral principles, and can be viewed either as autonomous or as aspects or emanations of a creator deity or transcendentalabsolute principle (monistic theologies), which manifests immanently in nature (panentheistic and pantheistic theologies).
That interpretation between these seemingly distinct philosophies is I think too pragmatic if true history is studied but polytheism most definitely includes most if not all of the older indigenous peoples vis a vis christian beliefs and ideals said to be of fairly recent construction.
The society hopes to invite Dr Rangi Matamua for a session, talk and discussion – ‘Korero’ event at some time in the future to share more knowledge with the society and the wider community.
The National Library, Archives New Zealand and Nga Toanga Sound and Vision are shifting from its building with invaluable items in Wellington to a state of the art facility to be built in the Horowhenua at Taitoko or Levin.
The Taonga or treasures of national significance will be housed in a special purpose (yet to be) built building to help preserve them better than where they are currently housed.
The current site at 10 Mulgrave Street Wellington for Archives New Zealand is an older building susceptible to water leaks and contains asbestos making the decision following a tender process for the best available facility to help maintain important items and national treasures a very easy one in the end.
Amoung the items of national heritage could be He Wakaputunga o te Rangatiratanga o Niu Terani 1835 or the declaration of the united tribes of New Zealand which was originally signed in 1835 and promulgated in the colony of New South Wales. The document was accepted and acknowledged by the colonial office which gave rise to the requirement of a treaty between nations now called the Treaty of Waitangi 1840 in Aotearoa New Zealand.
Will the treaty be coming to the Horowhenua? It is likely that the document will indeed be cared for in the purpose built Horowhenua facility.
The original signings of Te Tiriti occurred at the ‘tail of the fish of Maui’ Te Tai Tokerau, Northland 6 February 1840 with other copies taken nationwide to be signed by many Maori signatories including Women and children. Many signatures were obtained on the Kapiti Takutai, the spiritual home of the Mua o te Tangata people.
Horowhenua is of course home to the Muaupoko people or ‘the front of the head’ of the fish of Maui – Te Ika a Maui – ‘the fish of Maui’ or more commonly referred to as the North Island of New Zealand. The South Island is also known as ‘Te Waka a Maui’ or the ‘canoe of Maui’.
Captain Cook originally recorded the South Island as Te Waipounamu and the North Island as Ahi No Maui which our research has deciphered for reporting to the Waitangi Tribunal throwing up some doubt as to the meanings applied by usage of Te Ika and Te Waka a Maui interpretations.
After his initial visits to ‘Golden Bay’ aka as ‘Mohua’ or ‘Te Tai Tapu’ at the top end of Te Waipounamu and his interaction with ‘tangata whenua’ – ‘people of the land’ from around 1769.
Image of Te Ika a Maui, ‘Fish of Maui’ and Te Waka a Maui, ‘Canoe of Maui’.
Image of Cooks initial Map of Aotearoa – Cook had a Tahitian Interpreter onboard.
Muaupoko survived through relatively recent invasions by Ngati Toa largely driven by early speculator interaction in the early eighteenth century who were responsible for much upheaval between the tribes as well as the more serious impact of contagious fatal disease and later land acquisitions by the Crown and the dubious operations of the Native Land Court starting in 1865.
The Muaupoko people are made up of original tangata whenua (Mua o te Tangata) and later migrant groups and so their history is a lot older than normally perceived due to largely inaccurate historical literature and whakapapa accounts built around the initial dealings with the Crown.
The business park is likely to attract many visitors including researchers and tourists should the treaty and declaration be put on show as anticipated.
The South Pacific has long been known because of the exciting experiences the waters can offer. It has been famous to tourists and even neighbouring countries because of adventures and excitements it can offer. Many fishermen come to New Zealand when summers draws to a close. This is the season when tuna and bill fish swim closer to the shores to find a warmer place.
During the remaining seven months of the year, that is the time for the fishermen to have a great time especially the months after the winter. You do not need many things to bring to enjoy the exciting destinations of the South Pacific. All you need is your clothes and hats and off you go.
Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands, Tonga and Niue are places that most tourists visit to fish. These spots have been the highest rated fishing vacation sites because of the abundant fish and the weather as well. These spots have temperatures that attract fish, which explains why there are abundant fish in these places. Fishing in these spots is never complicated. You can even target sailfish and mahi-mahi with your own tackle.
Sailfish have been famous for their aerobatics with their sails dashing in the sunlight. It is also in the South Pacific that you will witness a big bull mahi-mahi lure you out. For the adventurers, this is also a chance for you to cast “poppers” and jigs to a dog tooth tuna or a Trevally.
These hotspots are perfect not only to those who like to cook what they catch but also for those who have the “catch and release” philosophy. Game fishermen in these places usually catch sailfish, Northern Blue Tuna, Marlin, Spanish mackerel, Red Emperor, Trevally and Cod.
If you are someone who loves fly-fishing, creek fishing and blue water fishing, then the South Pacific is perfect for you. Whether you are an expert or a beginner, there are many skilled and experienced fishing guides and best quality boats that are safe and will ensure that you will have the best fishing experience.
It is recommended to hire a sport fishing or a specialist game fishing boat for to have fun and make the most out of your fishing trip. Game fishing and sport fishing are both popular in these spots. These are games that were used to be played only by the rich but on these spots anybody can play!
New Zealand is renowned for Fishing adventure. Watch an exciting fishing expedition into a secret location in the South Island, Te Waipounamu.
Many social traditions and activities are very
associated with drinking beer, such as playing cards,
darts, or other games. The consumption of beer in
isolation and excess may be associated with people
drinking away their troubles, while drinking in
excess with company may be associated with binge
Around the world
All over the world, beer is consumed. There are
several breweries in the Middle East countries as
well, such as Iraq and Syria. There is also
breweries in African countries and other remote
countries such as Mongolia as well.
Getting an appropriate beer glass is considered
desirable by some drinkers. There are some drinkers
of beer that may sometimes drink out of the bottle
or can, while others may choose to pour their
beer into a glass. Drinking from a bottle picks
up aromas by the nose, so if a drinker wishes to
appreciate the aroma of a beer, the beer is first
poured into a mug, glass, or stein.
Similar to wine, there is specialized styles of
glasses for some types of beer, with some breweries
producing glassware intended for their own styles
The conditions for serving beer have a big influence
on a drinker’s experiences. An important factor
when drinking is the temperature – as colder
temperatures will start to inhibit the chemical
senses of the tongue and throat, which will narrow
down the flavor profile of beer, allow certain
lagers to release their crispness.
The process of pouring will have an influence on
the presentation of beer. The flow rate from the
tap, titling of the glass, and position of the
pour into the glass will all affect the outcome,
such as the size and longevity of the head and the
turbulence of the bar as it begins to release the
The more heavily carbonated beers such as German
pilseners will need settling time before they are
served, although many of them are served with the
addition of the remaining yeast at the bottom to
add extra color and flavor.
The rating of beer is a craze that combines the
enjoyment of drinking beer with the hobby of
collecting it. Those that drink beer sometimes
tend to record their scores and comments on various
This is a worldwide activity, as people in the
United States will swap bottles of beer with those
living in New Zealand and Russia. The scores may
then be tallied together to create lists of the
most popular beers in each country as well as
those throughout the world.
Snowboarding by itself is a fun and safe sport which is basically a cross between skiing and skateboarding. Using a single large snowboard, enthusiasts rush down slopes through the snow. The feel and balance is quite different from regular skiing since navigation through the snow is achieved on only a single board, and unlike skateboarding, snowboarders let gravity do all the work of propulsion for them as they slide down the slopes.
Naturally, once snowboarding caught on in popularity, it was only a matter of time before the most highly skilled practitioners decided to tackle harder and harder slopes, finding ones with more dangerous terrain, or natural formations that allowed for stunts like turnpipes in skateboarding.
Thus was born extreme snowboarding. Extreme snowboarding involves extremely tough slopes set at 45 degree angles or less, making runs down these slopes extremely fast and difficult to control. Unlike gentle civilian snowboarding slopes, extreme slopes will also usually have outcroppings of rock jutting out from the snow as part of the challenge.
This is not a fact to be taken lightly, and not a sport to be taken by amateurs. Given the speeds at which an extreme snowboarder can go, even a casual splash on the slope an lead to broken limbs or a broken neck from impact with the snow alone. When you factor in the presence of actual rock formations, you can see how this sport is one that is not undertaken lightly.
Extreme snowboarder slopes actually dont have any of the usual conveniences of a civilian ski or snowboard slope. There are no trans for uphill transport, no waystations for shelter and relaxation. It is wilderness all the way. More often than not, during extreme snowboard competitions, the boarders actually ride airlifts to get to the top of the course.
Like some extreme sports, snowboarding enthusiasts have even merged their styles with that of other extreme sports. For example, some snowboarders actually pack parachute gliders on their backs These extreme sportsmen take a snowboard and do a run all the way down a slope which ends at a sheer-drop cliff, and once they fly off the cliff, trigger the chutes and hang glide all the rest of the way down the mountainside. If that isn’t an adrenaline rush, I don’t know what is!
Some of the more popular and challenging snowboard slopes are located in New Zealand and Alaska. In the Alaskan slopes, there are 4000 foot vertical run areas with gullies, ditches, and wind lips, as well as trees to contend with on the slope. There is also an area with natural half-pipe formations and rolls where freestyle exhibitions similar to that done for skateboarding can be performed.
The New Zealand slopes are more challenging for those who enjoy absolute speed runs. With one of the steepest and sharpest slopes around, navigating the New Zealand snowboarding slopes requires perfect balance and control to keep from spilling.
Given the risks of snowboarding, every professional competing extreme snowboarder is required to learn first aid specializing in cold weather injury treatment, as well as survival, search, and rescue techniques for winter and mountainous terrain. On their runs, they are also required to bring avalanche transceivers for emergency pickups in case of an avalanche or if they go off course and get lost.
Like most extreme sports, extreme snowboarding is most definitely not for the weak or the faint of heart. But for those who are up to the challenge, it offers one of the most exciting blood rushes around.
Compared to a real casino experience, here are some of the considerable pros and cons of online gambling:
Pros of Online Gambling
1. Hot Offers
As a competitive business, online gambling can give so much to persuade gamblers. They could offer bonuses for new customers to sign up, i.e., additional 10-50% of their initial deposit to their bankroll, random deposit of money in customer accounts, and giving away vacations for particular levels of total money bet.
2. Better Rules
According to experienced online gamblers, online gambling has better rules compared to physical casinos.
3. Cozy Gambling
Of course, the online world makes online gambling another convenient way to have fun in the comfort of home.
4. Less Annoyances.
Troubles with drunken people, smokers, thieves. With online gambling these real casino troubles are avoided.
5. No Tipping Obligation.
Unlike playing in a real casino, you don’t have to be obligated to tip the waiters and dealers.
Cons of Online Gambling
1. Patience is a Virtue
Cashing out can be a bit tedious with online gambling compared to real casino gambling. One may be prompted to wait for about 2-4 weeks for cashing out. With this in mind, the use of debit card is advised since with it, it is a lot faster to make your credit appear.
2. Customer Service Boo-Boos
Depending on where you play, you don’t have that face to face confrontation power with the online gambling site. Some sites may offer toll-free calls and e-mail correspondence. But these are prone to delays compared to just talking to the casino manager or something to that effect.
3. Online gambling casino calls the shots.
With online gambling, the player may have to deal with the casino’s word as the final word when any dispute surfaces.
4. Credit/Debit Card Overuse
Your ability to balance your credit or debit card statement might fail with online gambling because of the temptation to play at a lot of places.
5. Inaccurate transaction documentations.
Transactions don’t usually have the name of the casino you played at but instead only the merchant bank is identified.
With this information, weigh the differences as to whether you prefer to do online gambling or not. As long as you don’t get too hooked up on it and you’re enjoying yourself, go ahead get a feel of the online world of gambling.
According to the Waitangi Tribunal website :
The Waitangi Tribunal is a standing commission of inquiry. The tribunal makes recommendations on claims brought by Māori relating to legislation, policies, actions or omissions of the Crown that are alleged to breach the promises made in the Treaty of Waitangi or in Maori, Te Tiriti o Waitangi 1840.
The Te Reo Maori version, which is quite different to the English version, as English then was itself quite different to what it is today, is the document that was signed by all of the Maori Rangatira available to sign at the time. Different Maori versions were signed around the Country as Hobson set about the task of establishing Crown Maori relationships in 1840 nationwide.
In this region the document is referred to as the Cook Strait Sheet which included some notable and not so notable or recognisable signatories for Maori. Henry Williams and Octavius Hadfield were assigned the task in 1840 by then Consul Hobson capturing signatories in northern Te Waipounamu, Te Tai Ihu and Te Tai Tapu and southern Ahi No Maui Poneke, Papanui, Kapiti Takutai as far north as the Whanganui or Te Waka a Maui and Te Ika a Maui for the South and North Island Maori populations respectively at the time.
Te Tiriti is without compare in international treaties and is seen by many noteworthy scholars as best described as a ‘treaty of protection’ guaranteed Maori. Without question a fundamental constitutional document of the ‘unwritten constitution’ of New Zealand and somewhat overshadowed by early colonial law impacting all New Zealanders. This is without question one of the key grievances that are well founded by claimants to the tribunal.
The other serious problem for the tribunal is the introduction of the Native Land Court in 1864 and use of legal principles that are contradictory to the English law guaranteed protection to Maori by Te Tiriti o Waitangi 1840.
Maori were not officially acknowledged as Crown subjects in law until the introduction of Native Rights Act 1865.
One may ask, why a treaty? That answer is very simple.
Preceding the treaty was a Crown Colonial Office acknowledged declaration of independence on record as He Wakaputunga o te Rangatiratanga o Nu Tereni 1835 signed by various Rangatira including a few south of Ruapehu. A fact not well known. The declaration was promulgated or simply put, registered in the New South Wales gazette at the time. New Zealand at that time was considered to be part of the New South Wales colony of ‘New Munster’ now Australia by the English Crown.
This is where the frailties of law principles long established in the ‘imported’ English law for those considered to be Crown subjects is ‘exposed’.
He Whakaputunga falls outside ‘by hook or frankly by crook’ New Zealand legislation which was by New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 was later given effect, not from 1835 and the earlier declaration but from February 1840 some five years after the declaration had already been acknowledged by the English Crown or precisely when Governor Hobson left New South Wales bound for New Zealand and to settle on an international treaty between two distinct nations in February 1840.
In defensive argument during tribunal hearings, the Crown Lawyers generally rely on, ‘what were the circumstances prevailing at the time’ when negotiations for land purchases, with respect to the treaty were made.
Yes the Crown did in fact know very well about both the declaration of independence in 1835 and the requirements of the treaty in 1840 during negotiations to buy land from Maori which gained momentum rapidly following legislation to introduce the Native Land Court in 1864.
From around 1840 the New Zealand Company under Captain Edward G Wakefield began conveying large numbers of new migrants to New Zealand to start a new life which escalated a myriad of problems Maori were confronting at the time.
One of the biggest problems for the Tangata Whenua was the fatal impact of contagious disease as interaction with new migrants intensified.
Needless to say the impact of influenza and tuberculosis was very severe spanning decades not only reducing Maori numbers significantly but affecting subsequent generations in ways not often given due consideration.
Role of the Waitangi Tribunal.
The tribunal has over the years clarified treaty principle breaches in some very good inquiries. The role of the Tribunal is set out in section 5 of the Treaty of Waitangi Act 1975 and includes:
- inquiring into and making recommendations on well-founded claims
- examining and reporting on proposed legislation, if it is referred to the Tribunal by the House of Representatives or a Minister of the Crown
- making recommendations or determinations about certain Crown forest land, railways land, state-owned enterprise land, and land transferred to educational institutions.
The Hautonga Society Incorporated has been active in supporting claims Wai 623, 624 and 1490 filed by founding member Mrs Ada Tatana dating back to 1996. The hearings for MuaUpoko claimants began in Levin or Taitoko on the shores of Roto Horowhenua in October 2015 as part of the Wai 2200 District Inquiry. The focus of the two and a half week hearings was on the Horowhenua Block award to Muaupoko of 52,000 acres in 1873. The tribe was under the ‘stewardship’ or Kaitiake of two very prominent Rangatira at the time namely Major Keepa te Rangihiwinui whose father, Tanguru was Muaupoko and Kawana Hunia son of Te Hakeke of Whanganui whose mother was Muaupoko.
Te Rangihiwinui;s mother Rereomaki is said to be one of very few women to have signed however our research indicates that there were in fact numerous Wahine Rangatira in this region that actually signed Te Tiriti but were not identified until recently.
The interesting feature of the Horowhenua Block hearings is the fact that Maori were not permitted to form a trust over their own lands. Te Rangihiwnui in particular was drawn into years of protracted court hearings at immense cost (including land in lieu) to essentially clarify his position as trustee for the tribe not the sole owner of the entire 52,000 acre Horowhenua Block as prescribed by the title. A mechanism used by the Crown to individualise the land into seperate partitions from which buy ups by settlers afterward proved a fait accompli for the tribe and its community structure.
An initial ‘Horowhenua: Muaupoko Priority Report’ was published in 2017.
Since then Hautonga Marae has hosted numerous Hui regarding the claims, report findings and preparing for future hearings as inquiry extends interests beyond Horowhenua Block.
You can obtain a copy of the ‘Horowhenua Block ‘ report from this link
Porirua ki Manawatu Inquiry District Map. Source Waitangi Tribunal
Hearings for Te Ati Awa/Ngati Awa claimants as tangata heke at Waikanae have concluded and a report is still forthcoming as at writing this post. Currently Raukawa claims as tangata heke are being heard.
Ngati Toa who under the leadership of Te Rauparaha and his nephew Te Rangihaeta came south to the Kapiti Takutai from Kawhia around 1820 followed by Raukawa under Te Whatanui about one year later have already been through and settled treaty grievances with the Crown.
The tribunal hearings process is a long drawn out affair and can take many years to reach agreement and settlement with claimants.
The costs can also be immense but thankfully most claimants are afforded legal representation by legal aid services in return for their ‘tangata whenua’ experience and or tribal knowledge as part of the commission of inquiry process.
One particular grievance on point is the confiscation of a huge block (Block 12) of the Horowhenua Block to pay for the commission of inquiry in 1896, which was not favoured by Muaupoko in any event.
The following video attachment is a pretty good assessment of the legal implications of the treaty and the knowledge or lack of it by ordinary New Zealanders.
More to follow.